Which Factors Influence the Rising Costs of Clinical Trials?

Recent trends suggest a rising costs in conducting a clinical trial, a trend that seems to hinder the discovery and development of new medicines. This could be disturbing news for various pharmaceutical companies and patients expecting newer health drugs.

A study conducted by the Tuft Center for the Study of Drug Development stated that drug costs increase about 5 times faster than preclinical costs during the 1980s to 1990s. Present day estimates suggest that clinical research trials costs feature at 1.3 billion US $ to 1.7 billion US $.

There is widespread debate about the increase in trial costs. Reducing trial costs is absolutely essential for the greater good of the common man. It is estimated that drug costs have increases at a rate that was 7.4 % higher than inflation over the previous 20 years (Ann Neurol 2007;62[6]:A6-7).

Some attribute the rise in costs to the industry’s success over a couple of years. The research and development of these new drugs has made it very difficult for pharmaceutical companies to prove that their products are superior to pharmaceutical products that are presently available in the market.

Pharmaceutical companies see the pressing need to gather more data to show modest benefits over their competitors resulting in more recruitment for clinical trials. The need to search for innovative new products has pushed companies to develop treatments for chronic health conditions. However, the clinical trials for these types of drugs tend to be very expensive, long and complex. Other factors influencing drug costs are development of clinical trial protocol, more emphasis on site monitoring, increase use of imaging technologies and different interpretation of compliance regulations.

This increased cost if affecting the pharmaceutical industry in many ways. Most companies are conducting clinical trials in countries such as India and China, where costs are about 60% lower. The industry is more cautious than before and is not willing to take chances with novel medicines.

In an effort to minimize costs, pharmaceutical companies off load their research and development responsibilities to Contract Research Organizations (CROs). Organizations now seek to eliminate inefficiencies in the clinical trial process by streamlining it. International Conference on Harmonization has played a major role in harmonizing regulatory requirements across all major drug markets.

Reducing the failure that is associated with the later stages of the drug trial process, one can reduce the costs associated with the trial. By improvising the process of successful review at critical end-points of a clinical trial, weeding out failed subjects in the earlier stages would make it cost effective during phase 3 trials. Also, electronic data capture seems to offer a better alternative for improving the data quality.

However, there is still no denying that clinical research offers the best and most reliable solution for the discovery and development of new drugs.

How to Lose Weight and Get In Shape While Having Fun

You basically have two choices if you want to lose weight. You can change how you eat or increase your activity or exercise. The bottom line to the waistline is always going to be calories in versus calories burned. For most of us the idea of having to commit to an exercise program is difficult but it’s the only option if you want to lose weight and get in shape. The fact is that we lose one-half of a percent of muscle per year after we pass the age of 30. That means our metabolism slows way down and it becomes even easier to gain weight. Most of us felt pretty good and looked pretty good all the way up until we didn’t. So here is the best sleeping pill, diet pill, and anti-depressant that I know of and you don’t need a prescription!

If you can think of exercise as a play date, then it can be something to look forward to rather than something to get done! Find something you enjoy doing, and do it. It could be tennis, swimming, hiking, jogging, walking the dog, weightlifting, Zumba aerobics, dancing, pole-dancing, kickboxing, boxing, cardio barre, Nia, yoga, biking, jump rope, hula hooping, climbing stairs or even just shooting baskets. Think about something you used to love doing and then do it again! If you can commit to anything physical for 20 minutes a day, you can make a big impact on your health and really boost your metabolism! There are so many fun ways to lose weight and get in shape while improving your heart health, reducing stress, increasing endorphins and building muscle.

Here are some statistics if you want to know how long it will take to lose a pound of fat when exercising. If you get on a bicycle for 20 minutes a day, at 70 revolutions per minute, it will take 35 days to lose a pound of fat for a total of 10 pounds per year. If you run on a treadmill for 20 minutes a day, at 4 mph, it will take 26 days for you to lose 1 pound of fat for a total of 14 pounds per year. If you run up and down stairs or use a stair master for 20 minutes daily, it will take 21 days to lose a pound of fat for a total of 17 pounds per year. Finally, if you do kickboxing or martial arts for 20 minutes a day, it will take 17 days to lose a pound of fat for a total of 21 pounds per year. Just by adding activity for 20 minutes a day, it can add up to several pounds of fat loss per year so you lose inches while you lose weight and get in shape.

The way I found a workout routine that I really enjoyed was by trying a whole bunch of different ones. I made a pact with myself that since there were about 10 different fitness centers in a 5-mile radius of my house that I would try something different every week. Most clubs offer at least one class for free or at a deep discount. So I started at one end of the busy boulevard by our home and made my way block by block. I finally discovered kickboxing, a sport I hadn’t even thought of trying or knew anything about. It turned out to be a blast and I found a way to lose weight and get in shape while improving my endurance, strength, and muscle tone. I also felt better and had more energy. Working out doesn’t have to be drudgery but something to look forward to!

Muscle Toning 101

Bombshell time… Muscle toning is an enormous myth which was created and fabricated by people who don’t really understand the human body and exactly what they needed to do to get the look they wanted. Unfortunately this myth has kept a number of people from actually making any progress for years on end. An understanding of our anatomy, human physiology combined with research clearly shows us that this myth of muscle toning is unfounded.

Don’t believe me? Consider this. A muscle can only get stronger or weaker, bigger or smaller it cannot and does not become toned or untoned. A muscle by nature is always toned, it is simply the amount of tension a muscle retains while in a relaxed state. So it is appropriate to say that a bodybuilder has higher muscle tone than a couch potato. This tension or toned state is not a thing of its own but rather a byproduct of gaining muscle so improving the tone of the muscle or the tightness of a muscle is determined by the amount of muscle. By nature a non-muscular fluffy fellow will not have a toned look. A muscular lean individual with a low body fat will have a toned look.

Everybody still with me?

Ultimately it really doesn’t matter what we call something but rather that we are clear on what we are trying to achieve. What we want is to get rid of that soft and flabby look and at the same time tighten everything up giving it a more firm and lean appearance. This means if you tell me you want to get more toned your two training goals for the rest of your life are this: 1) Gain muscle, 2) Lose body fat. Repeat after me Build muscle, lose fat. If you feverishly work to adhere to these two rules of longevity, vitality and performance I promise you will be as toned as you have ever been!

3 Ways to Get Toned Lose Fat and Gain Muscle

1) Heavy Resistance Training, remember we need to build muscle here. Muscle tone is not developed by doing endless repetitions with your 5 pound pink dumbbells or 30 minute core circuit composed of 5,000 crunch variations. Heavy means heavy.

2) Intense Interval Training, Say goodbye to the never ending hours on the elliptical, you need to turn it up a notch if you want to get that metabolic furnace burning hot.

3) Optimizing Nutrition, Bottom line if you want that lean look you better take this one very, very seriously. Remember you cannot out train a poor diet. We eat poorly we look poor, funny how that works.

Why Do People Prefer Medical Education in Russia?

In Russia, medical education will last up to 6 years for a normal MBBS or MD degree. During the course, the initial 2 years will be the same procedures followed in all reputed colleges. The initial 2 years include chapters of fundamental science and preclinical procedures that are necessary for learning basic medical education. Only from the 3rd year, the actual study related to medical concepts starts. The topic includes biochemistry, pathology including pathological physics and pathological anatomy, propedeutics and other medical subjects etc. During the 4th and 5th year, professionals will be performing tasks that are done by nurse, clinical assistants and also physicians etc.

During the 6th year, candidates should apply for an examination that is conducted in national level and also the pass the exam. This examination is also one of the important examinations that are included in the medical education. Apart from this exam, mandatory 1 year internship is necessary to the candidates for getting practical experience. Candidates should go and meet necessary department in clinics/ hospital for requesting permission for an internship. In very rare cases, college itself will arrange facility for an internship to the candidates. During the internship period of medical education, candidates will get an opportunity to learn about physiotherapy, dietology, ophthalmology, biochemistry, neurosurgery, otolaryngology and climatotheraphy etc.

All these are the important subjects included as curriculum in medical education and the same are followed in all medical schools. But in Russia, the education procedure is different in such a way that candidates are allowed for watching the live surgeries and also given chances to the candidates for operating patients as per the instructions provided by the doctors. So, with all these aspects and benefits, medical education in Russia is effective to the candidates and many people prefer medical courses in Russia than in other countries.

Bored With What You’ve Been Eating?

I thought you might like to know about a couple new cookbooks that will help you cook up your favorite foods, in a way that supports your health.

I have two cookbooks to share with you. One is written by Dr. Andrea Purcell, a naturopathic doctor and one of my colleagues, and the other written by Jared Koch, a health coach and nutrition consultant in Manhattan who I’ve known for several years, and who also created a website and app to help you find healthy restaurants: Clean Plates.com.

Both books are great resources, especially when you are following The Hamptons Cleanse, avoiding common food allergens (gluten, dairy, eggs), and/or wanting to decrease inflammation in your body.

They both focus on eating lots of plant-based foods, no refined sugar or processed foods, and have recipes that are fast and easy to make. They also both promote the value of eating a good breakfast, and include vegetarian and vegan recipes, but they are targeted at slightly different audiences.

Feed Your Cells, by Dr. Purcell, is a perfect book for those who are transitioning to eating gluten-free because it shows you how to make simple meals without using gluten.

The book contains an entire chapter about gluten, celiac disease, and gluten sensitivity. It explains the high prevalence of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity today, and the reactions that gluten provokes in the body. An additional perk is that there is also a chapter with vegetarian gluten free recipes.

The Clean Plates Cookbook, by Jared Koch and Jill Silverman Hough, is a more comprehensive overview of healthy eating, and would be good for people who would like to learn how to choose healthy foods, as well as those who are tired of hearing about fad diets.

It is set up around the premise that there is no universal “right” way to eat, but that each person has individual dietary needs. With that understanding, the first half of the book provides a comprehensive overview of the different food groups and then the second half of the book has recipes, which are labeled with easy-to-read icons that specify whether they are vegan, gluten free, dairy free, etc. The book also contains basic cooking methods, as well as tips on how to have a healthy relationship with food.

Remember. Eating healthy doesn’t have to be boring. Be willing to expand your culinary knowledge and you’ll always find something new to experience.

Is There Such a Thing As Too Young to Take Anti-Aging Treatments?

In a world where youth are bombarded with advertisements, news reports pertaining to celebrities undergoing anti-aging treatments and promotions of the latest products to make you look younger, the question that has been asked as of late is: can you be too young to receive anti-aging treatments?

A new report from The NPD Group found that Generation Y women are starting to observe and even fight the signs of aging. The study titled “Women’s Skincare In-Depth Consumer Report” discovered that more than one-third (39 percent) of women aged 25 to 34 say anti-aging is a crucial benefit in the products they use for facial skin care. Meanwhile, only 19 percent of women aged 18 to 24 argue that anti-aging is an important treatment.

Despite the figures being a lot higher for the older demographics, there is a growing number of young women who feel anti-aging is an important element in the skin care products that they consume on a regular basis. Industry experts make the case that both manufacturers and retailers need to educate women from Generation Y a lot more than what they are presently doing.

“There is an opportunity for manufacturers and retailers to educate Gen Y women on facial skin care, and allowing them to sample products plays an important role not only in capturing these consumers, but turning them into loyal customers as their needs evolve,” said Karen Grant, vice president and senior global industry analyst, The NPD Group, Inc.

“Open to learning, reachable and seeking solutions, Gen Y women are a critical age group for skin care marketers to target now, as they are beginning to develop skin care regimens that are likely to follow them throughout the rest of their lives.”
Prevention

But is there such a thing as being too young to begin using facial cleansers, eye products and neck moisturizers in order to combat the aging process? Dr. Elizabeth L. Tanzi, co-director of the Washington, D.C. Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, essentially stated a recent meeting that genetics are the primary factor in a person’s skin, such as an individual inheriting certain facial movements and expressions, and not their age.

Dr. Tanzi added that in addition to genetics, a person’s environmental exposure can also play a significant factor. Some of this includes smoking, too much ultraviolet exposure, using tanning beds and playing sports outdoors, which can all contribute to heightened aging.

“I think it’s more important to talk about looking youthful, energetic, and vibrant, not necessarily looking young, because we may be inadvertently delivering the wrong message – that all aging is preventable if treatments are started early enough – and that sets the stage for unrealistic expectations,” explained Dr. Tanzi.

WebMD reports, meanwhile, that young women shouldn’t focus on utilizing products but rather taking preventative measures that enhance the aging process. For instance, Adam Friedman, MD, director of dermatologic research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, told the medical outlet that youth in their 20s can wear sunscreen every day as a form of anti-aging. Other experts make a strong point of youth refraining from smoking cigarettes.

Although anti-aging creams, for example, can fight wrinkles and assist in speed cell turnover, it’s still important to look after your skin when you’re young, even if you feel that you’re looking older in the mirror.

“Control the environmental causes of aging and, while you might see fine lines in your early 30s, you can minimize dilated blood vessels, deeper wrinkles, and loss of elasticity into your late 40s or 50s,” noted Joshua Zeichner, MD, director of cosmetic and clinical research in dermatology at New York’s Mt. Sinai Medical Center.

Nitric Oxide Products – The Best Medical Solution For A Range Of Body Ailments

Nitric oxide is considered as a very helpful internal product that controls the flow of blood in our body. A proper flow of blood is necessary to keep the nerves in a proper order. It helps in fostering the improvement of brains along with the controlling of blood pressure in our body. With the increasing age, the pressure of blood does not remain the same. The presence of nitric in the body is responsible for lowering the blood pressure. However, the best part of the nitric products is that it never lowers the blood pressure below normal. When the pressure goes slightly above the normal, then the nitric starts to function.

Uses of nitric oxide

There are a range of nitric benefits. It is very much helpful in solving the problems related to diabetes. This particular product can channelize the blood flow in the entire body through the cardiovascular channels, and it will be able to stop the neuropathy symptoms of diabetes. There is an increasing trend of the rising levels of heart attack and brain stroke in the modern age. This nitric can help you reduce such things in the most amazing manner. Moreover, you can even feel energized after taking this stuff due to the increased amount of pure blood flow throughout the body.

How does nitric oxide work – few ideas

The nitric oxide products can help a person in diverse ways. If the cholesterol level of your blood cells increase, it raises the risk of heart attack. It forms a blood clot inside the tissues, and arteries that carry the blood directly to your heart. However, if a proper dose of nitric is taken, it will completely remove the presence of several cholesterol, and blood related clots in the entire body. Thus, it makes a person breathe fresh air, and helps the people to generate better living, and a healthy body.

Nitric oxide – the opinions of medical practitioners

The nitric oxide benefits is for both the Type 1 as well as the Type 2 diabetes. This product has shown marvelous medical results, and various doctors all over the world are prescribing this product for a better health. This product is also seen as an alternative to the standard insulin, and the blood pressure medics. This product can be considered as a blend of natural and chemical therapy. The nitric is such a thing that is natural inside the body, and the medic works in a chemical way. So, the entire therapy removes your ailments in the most natural method.

Continuing Medical Education: Maintenance of Certification on Plastic Surgery

With the advent of Maintenance of Certification (MOC) and the need for continuing medical education (CME), the American Board of Plastic Surgery offers a Maintenance of Certification program for all plastic surgeons. They – along with all the 24 member boards of the ABMS or the American Board of Medical Specialties – found the need to make sure that all medical professionals under their organization are fully equipped with skills and knowledge to face all medical challenges that may come their way today and in the future. It is a well-known fact that medicine is not a constant science; new treatment for diseases is discovered every day and at almost the same rate, a new disease surfaces too. That is why we, medical professionals, must keep up with that trend through continuing medical education.

That is especially true in the field of plastic surgery. We now live in a society where there is a growing demand for perfection – in your job, your fashion sense, and most importantly, the way you look. The faintest of lines may send may to the doctor for Botox injections. With that growing demand is also a rising pressure among plastic surgeons to offer the best possible service they can offer. Of course, aesthetics is not the only reason. There are various other genetic conditions and malformations that need to be addressed by plastic surgeons; all the more reason for continuing medical education.

Maintenance of certification for plastic surgeons is divided in to four parts: Licensure and Professional Standing, Life Long Learning and Self-Assessment, Cognitive Expertise, and MOC-Practice Assessment. Each part is required in specific years within the 10-year MOC cycle. For part I, for example, submission is required every three years with the exception of the 10th year – years 3, 6, 9, and 10. An applicant must hold an unrestricted state medical license and an active membership in one of the several sponsored organization of the board. That information must be verified on those years.

Continuing medical education is exceedingly important for the second part of the MOC program which is the lifelong learning and self-assessment. Needless to say “lifelong learning” requires all applicants to participate in activities that will allow them to learn and even re-learn knowledge and skills applicable for their practice. Each applicant is required to complete a total of 150 continuing medical education credits within the last three years; and this will be checked on years 3, 6, 9, and 10 of the program.

Medical Education in China

China has emerged as one of the leading countries of the world and it is said that an efficient education system is the base of a developed country. No doubt China has brought a massive change in its education system and has emerged as one of leading countries in education as well. Moreover it is becoming an educational hub for the international students as China is providing pretty splendid facilities to the foreign students to study in China.

In the recent few years, students from different Asian countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are rushing towards China, in order to get degrees in the medical courses like MBBS, BDS and B- Pharmacy from Chinese universities. The students have considered their degrees, not only up to the world’s finest standards but pretty budget friendly as well.

Some of the top universities like Zhang Zhou University, Gannan Medical University and Dalian Medical University are considered as some of the most favourite medical institutes for the international students. Studying in China is not only benefiting the international students by the budget point of view but it is offering them a chance to enjoy the most incredible Chinese culture. The students get the chances to meeting people from diverse backgrounds therefore an ideal environment of learning have been created.

Education is getting expensive by day and the students from the Asian countries are finding Chinese universities a much friendlier option to become a doctor as compared to the European or American institutes. Not only the MBBS program but Bachelor of Dentistry, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Nursing courses are also offered in China. On the other hand the Chinese Government’s Education Ministry has taken positive initiatives to make their teaching system of international standard. Their educational ministry has promoted their work in the media and opens the environment for positive criticism.

Taking the educational policy of China as a role model we can also improve our educational system with the same approach of development in higher education sector. China has proved that it possesses the right guts to not only compete in the fields of business and economy but in educational sector as well. The current burgeoning economy of the People’s Republic of China is a pretty unyielding testimony of its improved education system. Chinese doctors are serving well in all around the globe and the medical institutes in China are warmly welcoming international students to become a part of the world’s most dramatic culture and effective education system.

Students growing interests in choosing Chinese medical universities

Beginners Jump Rope Workouts

In case you missed the scoop, using a skipping rope is one of the best exercises you can do to help you remain in shape, reduce weight and be healthy. It’s simple, easy to learn, inexpensive, readily accessible, can be done almost anywhere and anytime and most of all is safe and reliable. And while you can do fancy techniques like double unders, turns and crossovers, simple jumping rope exercises are as effective for delivering results as a lot more challenging ones.

Making use of a jumping rope offers a lot of advantages it’s hard to list them in one single, short, article but here are a few of the main ones to give you an idea as to just exactly how powerful jumping ropes can be!

• Enhanced heart and lung condition

• Enhanced heart and lung health and wellness

• Improved stamina

• Stronger leg muscles

• Stronger shoulders and arms

• Good for burning calories and therefore managing your weight

• Improves your coordination and balance

• Improves eye-hand-foot coordination

• Increases bone mass and strength

• Jumping ropes are very portable, hardwearing and excellent value for money

• You can skip anywhere and anytime

As you can see, it’s a long list! But, if you are new to skipping, what is the best jumping rope workout to start with? If you take a look around YouTube.com, you’ll discover all kinds of video clips of people doing the most remarkable and complex jumping rope routines and while these are very cool to look at, they do not represent exactly what most people do with their jumping ropes.

Don’t feel that you are missing out due to the fact that you can’t do these tricks– as pointed out before; basic skipping exercises are just as effective as the more showy moves.

In order of difficulty, here are the five best jumping rope exercises for beginners…

• Two-footed double jumps

For this workout, you keep your feet with each other and allow yourself an extra “mini jump” between rope turns. This allows you to swing the rope a little bit more slowly and gives you opportunity to master skipping at a moderate pace. In your mind count “one and two”– the “and” being your mini jump in between turns. Once you have mastered this standard workout, it’s time to move on.

• Two-footed jumps

Spin the rope a little faster and you won’t have time for your mini jump so now it’s time to drop it and do one jump each turn. Again, keep your feet with each other and stay on the balls of your feet. Keep low to the ground and only just clear the rope. The jump should come from your ankles rather than your knees and remember to keep your shoulders down and arms relaxed.

• Two-footed side to side jumps

Rather than just bouncing up and down on your feet, begin to shift your weight a little from side to side. You’ll still come down on both feet but your weight will land more on one foot. Push your hips from side to side as you shift your weight.

• Boxers’ skip

Ready to look like a pro? From side to side jumps, lift your non-weight-bearing foot and tap your heel a little on the ground in front of you. In aerobics, this is called a heel dig. Do a single double-footed jump in between heel digs so your feet go left heel, both feet, right heel, both feet. As soon as you feel confident, drop the double footed jump and go for alternating heels.

• Knee ups

Lastly, switch over from heel digs to knee lifts. It’s basically the same step but you are lifting your knee up so your heel is clear of the floor. Start with low knee lifts and work toward pulling your thigh up to parallel to the floor. Use the same left, both, right rhythm you used before then slowly wean yourself off the double footed jump till you have the ability to do alternating high knee ups.

These five exercises are the best jumping rope exercises for beginners and give an excellent training effect despite their simplicity. If you only ever did these jumping rope moves, you would still gain enormous benefits from your jumping rope training.